As the name of the wall suggests, a retaining
1. Gravity Walls
The gravity walls are constructed to resist earth pressure. They are made of stone masonry, mass concrete or bricks. The main aim of the gravity walls is to prevent the great tension exerted in the walls.
These walls require a heavily built foundation because of the large sized wall. Gravity walls are suitable and economical for the small heights.
2. Semi-gravity Wall
The semi-gravity wall is a special version of the gravity wall. These walls are constructed to provide reinforcement hence reducing the mass of the used concrete. Additionally, the walls can be used in case of a broad foundation.
Semi-gravity walls can be constructed with the masonry stones by the cut and fill application.
3. Cantilever Walls
Cantilever retaining walls are constructed with reinforced concrete. They have a solid base slab and a thin stem. The cantilever walls use less concrete that the gravity walls but require more skills, great designs and being careful while constructing them.
The base slab of this is divided into heel slab and toe. The heel slab is the base under backfill while the toe is the other part of the base. The backfill of the heel provides lateral stability to the wall.
4. Counterfort Wall
The counterfort wall is correlated to the cantilever wall. When the cantilever wall is more than 7 meters, a counterfort wall will be essential to provide the wall with a vertical bracing above the heel slab. These walls are triangularly shaped beams with significant depth and width to connect the heel and the stem. The wall has regular spacing on the length of the wall.